Technology transfer is a fast-growing activity in the research and development system, one which has received substantial attention from governments, industries, and universities. Technology transfer is an important means by which developing countries gain access to new technologies. It is a key factor in the development of India’s economy, as it enables the country to acquire new technologies, products, and services.
The phrase “technology transfer” refers to the process of technology moving from one entity to another. The transfer is considered successful if the receiving entity, the transferee, can successfully use and eventually integrate the technology transmitted. Physical assets, know-how, and technical expertise may all be included in the transfer.
In India, Technology Transfer is regulated by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), which has set up the Technology Development Board (TDB) to facilitate the transfer of technology from research and development (R&D) organizations to the industry. The TDB has established an online platform, called the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) portal, to facilitate the transfer of technology between R&D organizations and industry. The portal offers a range of services, including technical assistance, access to R&D facilities and information, and funding for technology transfer projects.
Technology transfer in India is regulated and facilitated by a number of different laws and regulations. These include the Patent Act, the Copyright Act, the Trademarks Act, the Designs Act, the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, and the Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout Design Act. These laws and regulations provide the framework for protecting, regulating, and facilitating technology transfer in India.
The Indian government also offers a number of incentives to encourage technology transfer. These include tax incentives, grants and subsidies, and the setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to promote the transfer of technology. In addition, the government has set up a number of technology parks and incubators, which provide entrepreneurs and innovators with access to resources, mentoring, and other support.
In addition to government initiatives, a number of private-sector initiatives are aimed at facilitating the transfer of technology in India. These initiatives involve the establishment of technology transfer centres, the formation of joint ventures, and the promotion of technology transfer through the formation of intellectual property networks. These initiatives have helped to facilitate the transfer of technology and have helped to promote economic growth and development in India.
Technology transfer takes place in various industries in the country, some of these industries are mentioned herein below-
- IT Industry: The IT industry in India has been a major driver of technology transfer in India as it helps Indian companies in adopting state-of-the-art technology and processes. Many global IT companies have set up research and development centers in India, where they work on the development of new technologies and the transfer of existing technologies from overseas. The government has also provided various incentives to encourage the transfer of technology from multinational companies to Indian firms. For example, the government has set up the Digital India Programme, which provides tax incentives for companies that invest in the development of new technologies. Overall, technology transfer in the IT sector in India has been positive and has helped to create jobs and improve the economy.
- Agriculture Industry: India has seen significant technology transfer in agriculture in recent years. Modern agricultural techniques and technologies, including precision agriculture, have been adopted in India to increase yields, decrease input costs and reduce environmental damage. The Indian government has taken several initiatives over the last few decades to accelerate the transfer of technology from the research laboratories to the farmers’ fields. This includes the establishment of the National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), the establishment of the National Centre for Agricultural Research Management (NCARM) and the National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (NIAPR).
- Automotive Industry: India has seen significant technology transfer in the automotive industry, particularly in the production of small cars. Automobile manufacturers have established production facilities in India and transferred cutting-edge technologies from overseas.
- Pharmaceutical Industry: India has been a major beneficiary of technology transfer in the pharmaceutical industry. Many multinational companies have set up research and manufacturing facilities in India to take advantage of the lower costs and the availability of skilled labour. Introduction of Telemedicine and on call doctors has been a recent innovation in India.
- Manufacturing Industry: Technology transfer in the manufacturing industry has been helped by the Make in India program. This has resulted in the transfer of technology related to advanced manufacturing processes, automation, and robotics and has helped Indian companies become more competitive in the global market.